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Showing posts with label Rectal Disease. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Rectal Disease. Show all posts

Monday, 27 October 2014


Anal fissure is a very disturbing and painful condition most commonly occurs in young patients, however it may present at any age. It is a longitudinal tear in the anal canal below the level of the dentate line. Cause, more commonly is the constipation and less commonly repeated passage of diarrhoea.
Patient complains of severe pain during defecation (Painful stool) and after defecation which may remains for many hours due to spasm of anal sphincters which causes ischemia.
Other symptom is bleeding per rectum. Blood bright red in colour, comes in a streak along the stool.


On examination a longitudinal ulcer is seen at anal canal more commonly at 6 O' clock and less commonly at 12 O' clock. Anal fissure at 12 O' clock is usually seen in females after vaginal delivery.
Multiple fissures away from these sites suggest other pathology, like inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease), tuberculosis, sexually transmitted related ulcers or squamous cell carcinoma. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and proctoscopy are containdicated.

Anal fissure may be acute or chronic. Chronic anal fissure is characterised by a hypertrophied anal papilla internally and a sentinel tag externally.


Anal Fissure: A very painful condition


Anal fissure is a very disturbing and painful condition most commonly occurs in young patients, however it may present at any age. It is a longitudinal tear in the anal canal below the level of the dentate line. Cause, more commonly is the constipation and less commonly repeated passage of diarrhoea.
Patient complains of severe pain during defecation (Painful stool) and after defecation which may remains for many hours due to spasm of anal sphincters which causes ischemia.
Other symptom is bleeding per rectum. Blood bright red in colour, comes in a streak along the stool.


On examination a longitudinal ulcer is seen at anal canal more commonly at 6 O' clock and less commonly at 12 O' clock. Anal fissure at 12 O' clock is usually seen in females after vaginal delivery.
Multiple fissures away from these sites suggest other pathology, like inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease), tuberculosis, sexually transmitted related ulcers or squamous cell carcinoma. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and proctoscopy are containdicated.

Anal fissure may be acute or chronic. Chronic anal fissure is characterised by a hypertrophied anal papilla internally and a sentinel tag externally.


Posted at 23:59 |  by iqbal khatri

Tuesday, 7 January 2014

Haemorrhoids

Dilatation of anal cushions are called haemorrhoids. They also called piles. It is a common problem of community. Constipation, chronic straining, obesity and previous childbirth may lead to development of symptomatic haemorrhoids. An increase prevelance is seen amongst higher socioeconomic groups.


Classical Position of Haemorrhoids


The classical position of haemorrhoids are 3, 7 and 11 o'clock which corresponds to branches of the superior haemorrhoidal artery. Haemorrhoids (Piles) is a common problem of community.

If they confined to the tissue of the upper anal canal then called internal haemorrhoids. If they extend to the tissue of the lower anal canal then called external haemorrhoids.

Symptoms of haemorrhoids are

1. Bleeding per rectum
  • Bright red in colour 
  • Not mixed with stool 
  • Drop by drop or like spray after defecation
  • Painless. 

Bleeding Haemorrhoids

2. Prolapse
  • Intermittent lump appearing at the anal margin
  • Usually after the defecation
  • May reduce spontaneously
  •  May require manual reduction.

Haemorrhoids (Piles)


3. Soiling

4. Mucous Discharge

5. Itching

6. Pain (Particularly when thrombosed or prolapsed with ulceration and inflamation)       


Inspection of perianal area for sentinel skin tags, anal fissures, rectal polyps and tumours. Then perform Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and Proctoscopy.

DRE is done to feel any rectal growth or polyp.

Proctoscopy is done to confirm the presence of haemorrhoids.


Classification of Haemorrhoids
  • First degree.  Only bleeding per rectum.
  • Second degree. Bleeding and prolapse which reduce spontaneously.
  • Third degree.  Bleeding and prolapse on straining and manual reduction is required.  
  • Fourth degree. Bleeding and persistent prolapsed.

Prolapsed Piles


Complications of Haemorrhoids are 
  • Strangulation 
  • Thrombosis
  • Ulceration
  • Gangrene
  • Fibrosis
  • Portal pyaemia
  • Severe haemorrhage leads to anaemia.


Thrombosed Pile



Treatment of Haemorrhoids

Malignancy must be ruled out in elderly patients before the treatment started.

1. Symptomatic Treatment
  • Avoidance of constipation and straining by the use of stool softener laxatives and bulking agents.

2.  Injection Sclerotherapy (Mitchell)
  • Submucosal injection of the sclerosant (5% phenol in almond oil).
  • For first or second degree haemorrhiods whose symptoms are not improved by conservative measures.
  • 5 ml of sclerosant is injected in to the apex of the each pile pedicle and reassessed the patient after the period of eight weeks, if necessary then injections are repeated.
  • Causes submucosal fibrosis and fixation of the overlying mucosa.
  • Pain when needle of injection is in the wrong place and should be withdrawn.
  • Superficial ulceration when injected too superficial.
  • Prostatitis, pelvic sepsis, impotence and rectovaginal fistula when injected too deeply.

3. Rubber Band Ligation
  • Most common OPD procedure.
  • For first and second degree haemorrhiods.
  • Applied above the base of the haemorrhiods.
  • Two haemorrhoids at a time can be ligated.
  • Causes ischaemic necrosis of piles.
  • Slough off within ten days.
  • Pain, urinary retention and rectal bleeding are complications.

4. Cryotherapy (Lloyd Williams) & Infrared Photocoagulation (Leicester) Techniques

  • Work on same principles as rubber band ligation and sclerotherapy.
  • Higher recurrence rate 
  • Now a days not often used.

5. Haemorrhoidectomy


Open Haemorrhoidectomy


Indications for Haemorrhoidectomy
  • Third and fourth degree haemorrhiods.
  • Second degree haemorrhiods that not cured by non- operative treatment.
  •  Fibrosed piles.
  • Intero-external haemorrhiods with well defined external haemorrhiods.
  • Haemorrhiodsal bleeding which sufficient to cause anaemia.

Thrombosed Pile During Open Haemorrhoidectomy


Types of Haemorrhoidectomy
  • Milligan-Morgan procedure (Open haemorrhoidectomy) is the most commonly used.
  • Ferguson  procedure (Closed haemorrhoidectomy).
  • Diathermy haemorrhoidectomy.
  • Ligasure haemorrhoidectomy.
  • Stapled haemorrhoidopxy (is becoming popular now a days). 

Complications of Haemorrhoidectomy
  • Pain, acute retention of urine and reactionary haemorrhage are early complications.
  • Secondary haemorrhage, anal stricture, anal fissure, infection and incontinence  are late complications.


Haemorrhoids (Piles) : A Common Problem of Community.

Haemorrhoids

Dilatation of anal cushions are called haemorrhoids. They also called piles. It is a common problem of community. Constipation, chronic straining, obesity and previous childbirth may lead to development of symptomatic haemorrhoids. An increase prevelance is seen amongst higher socioeconomic groups.


Classical Position of Haemorrhoids


The classical position of haemorrhoids are 3, 7 and 11 o'clock which corresponds to branches of the superior haemorrhoidal artery. Haemorrhoids (Piles) is a common problem of community.

If they confined to the tissue of the upper anal canal then called internal haemorrhoids. If they extend to the tissue of the lower anal canal then called external haemorrhoids.

Symptoms of haemorrhoids are

1. Bleeding per rectum
  • Bright red in colour 
  • Not mixed with stool 
  • Drop by drop or like spray after defecation
  • Painless. 

Bleeding Haemorrhoids

2. Prolapse
  • Intermittent lump appearing at the anal margin
  • Usually after the defecation
  • May reduce spontaneously
  •  May require manual reduction.

Haemorrhoids (Piles)


3. Soiling

4. Mucous Discharge

5. Itching

6. Pain (Particularly when thrombosed or prolapsed with ulceration and inflamation)       


Inspection of perianal area for sentinel skin tags, anal fissures, rectal polyps and tumours. Then perform Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and Proctoscopy.

DRE is done to feel any rectal growth or polyp.

Proctoscopy is done to confirm the presence of haemorrhoids.


Classification of Haemorrhoids
  • First degree.  Only bleeding per rectum.
  • Second degree. Bleeding and prolapse which reduce spontaneously.
  • Third degree.  Bleeding and prolapse on straining and manual reduction is required.  
  • Fourth degree. Bleeding and persistent prolapsed.

Prolapsed Piles


Complications of Haemorrhoids are 
  • Strangulation 
  • Thrombosis
  • Ulceration
  • Gangrene
  • Fibrosis
  • Portal pyaemia
  • Severe haemorrhage leads to anaemia.


Thrombosed Pile



Treatment of Haemorrhoids

Malignancy must be ruled out in elderly patients before the treatment started.

1. Symptomatic Treatment
  • Avoidance of constipation and straining by the use of stool softener laxatives and bulking agents.

2.  Injection Sclerotherapy (Mitchell)
  • Submucosal injection of the sclerosant (5% phenol in almond oil).
  • For first or second degree haemorrhiods whose symptoms are not improved by conservative measures.
  • 5 ml of sclerosant is injected in to the apex of the each pile pedicle and reassessed the patient after the period of eight weeks, if necessary then injections are repeated.
  • Causes submucosal fibrosis and fixation of the overlying mucosa.
  • Pain when needle of injection is in the wrong place and should be withdrawn.
  • Superficial ulceration when injected too superficial.
  • Prostatitis, pelvic sepsis, impotence and rectovaginal fistula when injected too deeply.

3. Rubber Band Ligation
  • Most common OPD procedure.
  • For first and second degree haemorrhiods.
  • Applied above the base of the haemorrhiods.
  • Two haemorrhoids at a time can be ligated.
  • Causes ischaemic necrosis of piles.
  • Slough off within ten days.
  • Pain, urinary retention and rectal bleeding are complications.

4. Cryotherapy (Lloyd Williams) & Infrared Photocoagulation (Leicester) Techniques

  • Work on same principles as rubber band ligation and sclerotherapy.
  • Higher recurrence rate 
  • Now a days not often used.

5. Haemorrhoidectomy


Open Haemorrhoidectomy


Indications for Haemorrhoidectomy
  • Third and fourth degree haemorrhiods.
  • Second degree haemorrhiods that not cured by non- operative treatment.
  •  Fibrosed piles.
  • Intero-external haemorrhiods with well defined external haemorrhiods.
  • Haemorrhiodsal bleeding which sufficient to cause anaemia.

Thrombosed Pile During Open Haemorrhoidectomy


Types of Haemorrhoidectomy
  • Milligan-Morgan procedure (Open haemorrhoidectomy) is the most commonly used.
  • Ferguson  procedure (Closed haemorrhoidectomy).
  • Diathermy haemorrhoidectomy.
  • Ligasure haemorrhoidectomy.
  • Stapled haemorrhoidopxy (is becoming popular now a days). 

Complications of Haemorrhoidectomy
  • Pain, acute retention of urine and reactionary haemorrhage are early complications.
  • Secondary haemorrhage, anal stricture, anal fissure, infection and incontinence  are late complications.


Posted at 19:47 |  by iqbal khatri
If you have Fistula in Ano. Donn't be puzzle. Contact me.

Fistula in Ano

If you have Fistula in Ano. Donn't be puzzle. Contact me.

Posted at 19:16 |  by iqbal khatri
If you have painful defecation then immediately contact free of cost for advice.

Anal Fissure

If you have painful defecation then immediately contact free of cost for advice.

Posted at 00:14 |  by iqbal khatri

Monday, 6 January 2014

If you have bleeding per rectum, contact me for your diagnosis and management free of cost.

Have you Bleeding per Rectum?

If you have bleeding per rectum, contact me for your diagnosis and management free of cost.

Posted at 13:02 |  by iqbal khatri

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